problem arises because the majority of the mass
in fine aerosol particles is not directly emitted
but formed through numerous reactions with other
gasses in the atmosphere. These reactions are extremely
difficult to define as many reactions are short
lived and others produce minute particles in the
atmosphere. It is these secondary aerosol particles
that create environmental problems; these can now
be detected thanks to the research in this project.
sources of each of the major chemical constituents
of the aerosols must be known and their role in
atmospheric processes must be determined, in order
to regulate and reduce their detrimental effects.
"In this sense, aerosol science is now at the
same level as the measurement of most gaseous pollutants
was over a decade ago," says Ulevicius.
help increase knowledge and thereby develop efficient
abatement strategies, the EUROENVIRON COPAP project
designed a new particle counter able to measure
the concentration of these small aerosol particles.
It can measure particles as small as 5 nm in diameter,
in concentrations between 0.01 and 105 particles/cm3.
new device will provide reliable aerosol data, the
lack of which has until now hindered the understanding
of the formation of secondary aerosols and evaluation
of ways to regulate and prevent environmental damage.
Markku Kulmala, who leads the Physics Department
at the University of Helsinki, co ordinated the
Finnish academic and commercial partners and supervised
the theoretical, calibration and field studies.
He says: "EUREKA was crucial. Without it, this
work would not have been possible."
agrees: "EUREKA not only helped in the development
of the new instrument but also forged co operation
between scientists and commercial companies in Lithuania
project is set to increase the turnover of the commercial
partners - Eltera Ltd in Lithuania and Dekati Ltd
in Finland - both of which will manufacture and
market some 50 instruments per year.
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